Ancient Kerala History Timeline (BC 3000 - AD 1800)


BC 3000: Kerala also take part in Indus Valley Civilization that exists at that period. It is believed that Teakwood, Sandalwood and Ivory were exported to the western countries at that time.

BC 2000: Trading of spices with Assyria and Babylonia.

BC 1000: King Solomon exported ivory, spices, Peacocks, Monkeys from the Kerala to the west (Israel).

BC 700: The migration of Dravidians from the Mediterranean area to South India is also said to be happened during this period. Ancient religion in Kerala was Dravidian in Nature. Later after centuries, different religions entered.

BC 330: Megasthenes's reference of Kerala.

BC 300: The Aryans migrated from north India to Kerala. Both Jain and Buddha religions entered Kerala. Jains transformed the major places at that time, Thrikkannamathilakom, Kallil, Ganapathi Vattam (Sulthan Bathery), Chitharal (Kanyakumari) into Jain Centers whereas sreemoolavasam is the major Buddha center at that time.

BC 270 - 240: This period saw the spread of Buddhism in Kerala. A 3rd-century-BC (BC 257) rock inscription about Kerala (in the name of Keralaputra) is found in one of the rock edict by Emperor Asoka.

BC 250 - AD 250: Period of Ay rulers in Southern Kerala.

BC 250 - AD 880: Mushika Kingdom (also called Ezhimalai Kingdom, Puzhinadu, or Mushaka Rajya) established in Sangam Age in the current northern part of Kerala. Disestablished in AD 880, after Chera Army invaded the Mooshaka kingdom. Retrieval of Pandyas.

AD 45: A Roman-Greek sailor, Heppalus founded the direction of south west monsoon wind in AD 45. This finding helps him to find the route of Muziris (Kodungallur). They sail from the Horn of Africa to Kerala, India in 40 days. Thus they shifted the spice trade from north Indian ports to Muziris which called the "first commercial center of India." It enabled direct trade with Roman Empire. Many mariners like Panthenus, Cosmos Indicopleustes, Huan Tsang and others landed after this.

AD 50 – 125: The Chera kings invaded several portions of northern Kerala. At this period, Kerala had very strong trade with the West.

AD 52: St. Thomas, who was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ, arrived in maliankara near kodungallur to spread the Christian missionary thoughts. He converted Hindus to Christianity in this year. He builds churches in seven places of kerala, kottakavu, palayoor, kokkothamangalam, niranam, nilakkal, kollam and thiruvamcode.

AD 68: As a result of demolition of Jerusalem church by the Romans, the Jews migrated from Israel and some among them reached Kerala. They build their first church, synagogue in kodungallur. They settled in the locations of chavakkad, madayi, paravoor, mala, chendamangalam and mattancherry. After the formation of Israel in 1948, most of them returned to their native place.

AD 74: Pliny, a Roman author and naturalist mentioned Kerala in his book, “The Natural History”.

AD 125-180: Cheran Senguttuvan was one of the well-known rulers of this era.

AD 216 - 428: According to Keralolpathy, the period up to AD 216 is called as ‘Parasurama’ period and the period starting from AD 216 to AD 428 is called as age of 'Perumals'. The Brahmin families are believed to be migrated during this period to Kerala and were settled in 64 villages.

AD 250 - AD 925: The Ay rulers of this period are are Ay Sadayan, Karunandan, Karunandadakkan and the Vikramaditya Varaguna (885-925).

AD 345: In the leadership of Knai Thomman (Thomas of Cana), a group of Syrian Christians reached kerala. 400 christians from Baghdad and Jerusalem gotras reached kerala and from there onwards the number of Christians increased in kerala.

AD 354: “Constantine the Great” in kerala.

AD 550: Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Alexandrian merchant and traveler reached Kerala. This Byzantine monk had mentioned about the Christian group of Kerala in a book.

AD 630 - Huan Tsang visits South India including Kerala.

AD 644: Islam Scholar named, Malik Ibn Dinar from Persia reached Kerala to propagate Islam. He constructed mosques in the places of kodungallur, kollam, kasaragod, sree kandapuram, valapattanam, madayi, dharmadom, panthalayani kollam and chaliyam.

AD 715 - 768: Rule of Cheraman Perumal.

AD 788: Adi Shankaran (Shankaracharya) born in kaladi. He spread the advaitham in four parts of india by establishing four Madhoms in East Govardhana (Puri), South Sringeri (Mysore), West Dwaraka, and North Jyotirma?ha (Badarinath). Adi Shankara died in AD 820.

AD 800 - 1100: Rule of Kulashekhara Kings

AD 800 - 820: Kulasekara Azhwar, the founder of Later Chera Dynasty and also was the first ruler of this kingdom (AD 800 to AD 820).

AD 825: Kolla Varsham started in Kerala.

AD 851: The Persian Traveller, Sulaiman in Kerala

AD 869: Shankaranarayan (AD 825 - 900) wrote an astrology book called Shankaranarayaneeyam. It mentions about Grahana or eclipse and he also had run an Astrology centre at Mahodayapuram. He was the follower of Govindaswami.

AD 880: Chera Army invaded the Mooshaka dynasty.

AD 945 – 955: Arab Traveller Al-Masudi visited Kerala.

AD 974: Mampalli Plate of Sri Vallabhan Kotha of Venad is recorded.

AD 988: Palya Shasanam of Vikramaditya Varaguna.

AD 1000: Raja Raja Cholan shattered Kandalur Salai.

AD 1000: Bhaskara Varma- I had given the cheppadu to Jews at Mahodayapuram. According to that record, the jewish landlord, Joseph Ramban had got the rights including collecting taxes, to ride in a palankeen and 72 other rights. He also got the title of Anjuvannam.

AD 1044: Rajendra Cholan occupied Vizhinjam

AD 1070: Freedom from Cholas.

AD 1090 – AD 1729: Venad Rule started in Southern Kerala. The last king of Chera Dynasty, Rama Varma Kulashekhara, became the first ruler of an independent Quilon. The Venad era in Travancore lasts till the Aditya Varma period (1718 – 1721). The English East India Company occupied some land near Attingal (Anchuthengu) during the period of Umayamma Rani (who ruled the venad from 1677 to 1684). Later they extentended their company to the other parts of travancore city. At that time, a Mughal adventurer, Mughal Sardar obtained some suburbs from Umayamma Rani including Nedumangad . Later he was defeated by the Kerala Varma from Kottayam Royal Family and thus the Rani brought back her Trivandrum. During the late 17th century, the Ettarayogam members of the temples in Trivandrum are strong enough to challenge the decisions of Venad rulers. The clashes between both Aditya Varma and and the trustees of temple become common during that days. They poisoned the Aditya Varma and killed the six children of Umayamma Rani. This incident marks the beginning of end of Venad era. It happened with the fall of Rajah Rama Varma (1724-1729).

AD 1100: Vembolinadu splits into two as Vadakkumkoor and Thekkumkoor.

AD 1292: An Italian (Venice) named Marco Polo visited kollam.

AD 1295: Establishment of City Kozhikode.

AD 1322: Friar Odoric of Pordenone visited India upon journey to China. He visited Malabar and then to Pandarani , which is about 20 miles north of Calicut, Cranganore, and also Quilon.

AD 1324: Friar Jordanus arrived quilon for spreading missionary thoughts.

AD 1341: Muziris (100 BC – 1341 AD) located in Kodungallur was one of the greatest seaport in ancient eastern world. Upon the city was devastated by a flood from periyar or an earth quake in 1341, Kodugallur harbor got destroyed. From there onwards, Kochi became the major harbour of Kerala.

AD 1342 – 1347: Ibn Battutam, an Ethiopian traveler visited Kozhikode.

AD 1375 – 1475: Cherusseri Namboothiri, author of “Krishna Gatha” Period.

AD 1405: Perumpadappu Swaroopam shifted from Thiruvanchikulam to Kochi.

AD 1409: A Chinese Muslim voyager, Ma Huan visited Kerala.

AD 1440: Nicholo Conti in Kerala.

AD 1443: Abdur Razzaq, who was the ambassador of Shah Rukh, ruler of Persia to Calicut visited Kozhikode.

AD 1466 - 1471: Pathinettara Kavikal.

AD 1495 – 1575: Period of Thunjath Ramanujan Ezhuthachan, known as "the father of the Malayalam language.

AD 1498: Vasco da Gama landed in Kappad at Kozhikode on 20 May 1498 and is welcomed by the Zamorin. Gama is the first European to found the marine route to India. He was sent to India by Portuguese king Dom Manuel. The Portuguese period in kerala started.

AD 1499: Pedro Alvares Cabral reached Kozhikode following the path of Vasco da Gama.

AD 1500: Cabral reached Kochi.

AD 1502: The second visit of Vasco da Gama to Kerala.

AD 1503: The inauguration of Portuguese Fort in Kochi. The other names of this Portuguese Fort are Pallipuram Fort, Ayakotta, Azhikotta and Vaippinkotta. Portuguese named this fort as Manual Fort. It is one of the old European constructions.

AD 1504: Kodungalloor War between Kochi and Kozhikkode

AD 1505: Francisco de Almeida reached Kannur. He was the first Portuguese viceroy of India.

AD 1509: Afonso de Albuquerque becomes the Portuguese viceroy. He is the first Governor of Portuguese India.

AD 1510: War between the Portuguese and the Zamorin at Kozhikode. Portuguese attacked and defeat the Calicut's forces.

AD 1513: Zamorins and Portuguese sign a treaty citing that Portuguese had right to build a fort at Calicut.

AD 1514: The invasions of Cochin by Zamorins in Kodungallur.

AD 1515: A treaty between Portuguese governor, Lopo Soares and Kollam Queen.

AD 1524: The third visit of Vasco da Gama to Kerala. This time he came to kerala with the title of Portuguese Viceroy. He died in Kochi in the same year on the last day before Christmas.

AD 1525: Portuguese navy force invaded Ponnani.

AD 1531: Portuguese builded fort at Chaliyath.

AD 1540: A treaty between Portuguese and Kozhikode in Ponnani.

AD 1555: Portuguese builded a palace at Mattanchery in typical kerala style and gifted to kochi king, Veera Kerala Varma. Later this palace was rebuilded by Dutch and named it as Dutch Palace.

AD 1564: The Portuguese fort at Kannur was attacked by Samoothiri.

AD 1567: Jewish Synagogue established at Mattanchery. Today it was the oldest jewish church among Common Wealth Countries.

AD 1571: Samoothiri invaded the chaliyam fort from Portuguese.

AD 1579: Printing Press started at Vypinkara and Cochin by Jesuits.

AD 1586: Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri wrote Narayaneeyam.

AD 1592: Establishment of Dutch East India Company. The Dutch were the first Protestant nation in Europe to establish trade contacts with Kerala. The Dutch period in kerala started.

AD 1599: Udayamperoor Sunahadhos. (Synod of Diamper).

AD 1600: Portuguese army killed Kunjali – 4. Kunjali Marakkar was the title given by Samoothiri to the Muslim naval chief. They are the first to attack the foreign army in India.

AD 1604: A group of Ships of Dutch reached Kochi for the first time. Dutch were the first European protestant people to establish a trade relation with India. Portuguese belongs to Catholic Section.

AD 1616: Captian Keeling reached Kerala and is the first British to come to Kerala. Captain Keeling arrived in Calicut with three ships which brought Sir Thomas Roe on his embassy to the court of Jahangir. From there onwards the growth of British power in kerala started.

AD 1634: Kaniyamkulam war

AD 1644: The British built a trading place in Vizhinjam.

AD 1645: Valmiki Ramayanam was translated to Malayalam for the first time by Kottayam Kerala varma.

AD 1653: The Coonan Cross Oath was a public declaration taken by the members of Saint Thomas Christian community of Kerala following the incident of Udayamperur Synod of 1599. As a result the community splits into two as Pazhaya Koottukar (Syro-Malabar Church) and Puthen Koottukar (Malankara Churches such as Orthodox, Jacobites, Mar Thoma, Malankara Catholics etc.).

AD 1663: Dutch invaded Kochi from Portuguese and become the rulers of Kochi.

AD 1678: Hortus Malabaricus (Garden of Malabar) published from Amsterdam during 1678-1693, under the Governor of Dutch Kochi, Hendrik van Rheede, which deals with the medicinal properties of the plants in Kerala. It comprises of 12 volumes of book. It is the first book in which Malayalam script appears in print.

AD 1684: Attingal Rani given the Permission to British to build a fort at Anjuthengu.

AD 1691: Vettam War

AD 1694: The British builded factory at Thalassery.

AD 1695: The Anjuthengu Fort built.

AD 1699: A German born missionary worker, Arnos Pathri reached Kerala.

AD 1701 - 1721: Rule of Rama Varma.

AD 1708: The British East India Company built a fort in Thalassery in 1708, and is known as Tellicherry Fort.

AD 1715 – 1717: War between Samoothiri and Dutch.

AD 1721: Attingal Outbreak (Anjengo Revolt).

AD 1723: A pact between Travancore and British.

AD 1725: Mayyazhi becomes French colony.

AD 1729: Emergence of modern Travancore by Anizham Thirunal Marthanda Varma.

AD 1731: Sree Padmanabha Swami Temple was restructured by Marthanda Varma.

AD 1739: The Preparation of Ozhuku was done for the first time by Mallan Sankaran upon the order from Marthanda Varma.

AD 1741: Marthanda Varma conquered Dutch in Colachel War.

AD 1742: Marthanda Varma merged Ilayidathu Swaroopam (Kottarakara) with Travancore.

AD 1744: Bolgatty Palace built by Dutch in Bolgatty Island in kochi.

AD 1746: Marthanda Varma occupied Kayamkulam.

AD 1749: Marthanda Varma combined thekkumkoor along with Travancore.

AD 1750: Thrippadi Danam of Marthanda Varma.

AD 1753: A pact between Travancore and Dutch in Mavelikkara.

AD 1755: The last Mamankam festival in Thirunavaya was held in 1755, and it is believed that it is ended with Hyder Ali’s Kerala Attack following the suicide of Saamoothiri.

AD 1758: Dharma Raja succeeded to the throne of Travancore following the death of Marthanda Varma.

AD 1758: Hyder Ali attack in South Kerala.

AD 1761: The Land Tax was first introduced in Kochi.

AD 1766: Hyder Ali built a fort in Palakkad.

AD 1772: Father Clement's Sankshepa Vedartham came out in 1772 and was published in Rome. It was the first Malayalam book that written in Malayalam font completely from first to last page.

AD 1773: Hyder Ali defeats Samuthiri (Zamorins) at Kochi.

AD 1779: British captured Mayyazhi (Mahe) and later it was given to French.

AD 1788: Tipu Sultan attacks Kozhikode. Tipu Sulthan builded Faruqui city and he named it as the administrative capital of Malabar (Places under the rule of Tipu).

AD 1789: Tipu Sultan attacked the Nedumkotta of Travancore.

AD 1789: Raja Keshavadas become the dewan of Travancore.

AD 1790: Sakthan Thampuran becomes the ruler of the Kingdom of Cochin. He was considered as the founder of modern kochi and the world famous Thrissur Pooram was first introduced by him.

AD 1792: Srirangapatna Treaty was signed between Tipu and British. Upon that Treaty, the whole Malabar region under the control of Tipu was given to British. British appointed commissioners in the region to rule.

AD 1793: Emergence of British Malabar. Calicut is the capital of British Malabar Region.

AD 1793 – 1797: Kottayam Kerala Varma is the original Name of Pazhassi Raja. He attacked British by taking Puralimala as Centre. First Pazhassi Revolt in 1797.

AD 1795: The fall of Dutch Kochi.

AD 1795: Travancore under the British Supremacy.

AD 1798: Dharma Raja died in the age of 74.

AD 1798: Avittom Thirunal Balarama Varma became the king of Travancore upon the demise of Dharma Raja.

AD 1799: Raja Keshavadas died.

AD 1800: Colonel Macaulay designated as the resident for Travancore and Cochin.

AD 1800: Malabar district became a province of Madras presidency.