Indian National Committee for Space Research was established in 1962 under Dr. Vikram Sarabhai to formulate Indian Space Programme.
Father of the Indian space program is Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai.
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was set up in 1969.
The Headquarters of ISRO is at Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore.
Space Commission and the Department of Space were formed in 1972.
ISRO was brought under the Department of Space in 1972.
The first Rocket launching station in India is Thumba.
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) was founded in Thumba in 1962.
The first sounding rocket launched was Nike Apache in November 21, 1963.
Thumba was selected for being the rocket launching station because the Geometric equator of the earth passes near to Thumba.
After the death of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai on December 30, 1971 the entire centre at Trivandrum was renamed as Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.
TERLS was officially contributed to the United Nations on February 2, 1968.
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) was established for development of satellite launch vehicles and associated technologies.
50th anniversary of VSSC's rocket launch was celebrated on November 21. 2013.
The sounding rocket launched to commemorate the 50th anniversary of VSSC's rocket launch is RH 200 (Rohini 200)
The Sriharikota Satellite launching station is in the state, Andhra Pradesh.
The Indian Space Research Organisation's launching centre at Sriharikotta has been renamed as Sathish Dhawan Space Centre.
The first Chairman of ISRO is Vikrarn Sarabbai.
The first Malayalee ISRO Chairman is MGK Menon.
The longest served Chairman of ISRO is Satish Dhawan.
ORGANISATIONS RELATED TO ISRO
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram
ISRO Satellite Centre (SAC), Bangalore
Sathish Dhavan Space Centre, Sriharikota
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), Trivandrum
Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad
Development and Education Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad
ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Command Network (ISTRAC), Bangalore
Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad
Balasore Rocket Launching Station, Orissa
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS), Thiruvananthapuram
National Remote sensing Centre, Hyderabad
Antrix Corporation Limited is a wholly owned Government of India Company under the Administrative Control of the Department of Space.
Antrix Corporation was founded in 1992.
Headquarters of Antrix Corporation is at Bangalore.
Antrix Corporation is engaged in providing space products and services to International customers worldwide.
India's first satellite is Aryabhata.
Aryabhata was launched by the Soviet Union on 19th April 1975. (from Baikonour Cosmodrome)
India's first low orbit earth observation satellite is Bhaskara 1.
Bhaskara 1 was launched on 7th June 1979 (by the Soviet Union).
Bhaskara 2 was launched on November 20, 1981 (by Soviet Union).
First Satellite launched from India is Rohini (launched from Sriharikota).
Rohini is the name given to a series of satellites launched by the ISRO. The Rohini series consisted of four satellites.
India's first communication satellite is APPLE (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment).
APPLE was launched on June 1981 (from French Guyana).
INSAT or Indian National Satellite System is a sequence of versatile geostationary satellite introduced by ISRO to suit the telecommunication, distribution, meteorology, exploration and rescue operations.
The Stretched Rohini Satellite Series (SROSS) are succession of satellites built by ISRO to the Rohini Satellites.
TES is a innovative satellite to exhibit and verify in orbit.
TES was launched on October 22nd 2001 using the PSLV C-3 from SHAR.
The launch of Technology Experiment Satellite made India the second country in the world after the US that can commercially offer images with 1 metre resolution.
The first dedicated meteorological satellite of India is Kalpana 1.
Kalpana 1 was launched on 12th September 2002.
It was originally known as METSAT-1. It was renamed to Kalpana 1 in memory of Kalpana Chowla who perished in the space shuttle Columbia disaster.
The first Indian Satellite to study about Ocean is Oceansat (May 26. 1999).
The first Indian Cartosat Series of Satellite is Cartosat -1 (5 May, 2005).
First operational remote sensing satellite is IRS - 1A (launched on 17 March 1988)
First indigenous all weather radar imaging satellite is RISAT -1 (26 April 2012).
First high tech spy satellite of India is RISAT -1.
India's heaviest Satellite is GSAT -10 (September 29. 2012)
Indian Communication Satellite launched in January 5, 2014 on GSLV D5 Vehicle is GSAT – 14.
The first military satellite of India is GSAT -7 (August 30. 2013).
First nano satellite of India is Jugnu (2011 October 11).
Jugnu was designed by ISRO and the faculty and students of Kanpur.
The joint satellite mission of India and France to study the water cycle in the tropical atmosphere in the context of climate change is Megha-Tropiques (October 2011).
The first satellite developed by an Indian University is Anusat (April 20, 2009).
Anusat was developed by Anna University, Tamil Nadu.
India's first space Capsule Recovery Experiment Vehicle is SRE -1 (January 10, 2007).
First Indian satellite to provide DTH Service is INSAT -4A (December 22, 2005).
First multipurpose satellite indigenously built by India is INSAT -2A (August 1992).
The satellite based navigation system being developed by ISRO in collaboration with Airport Authority of India is GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation System).
The earth orbiting satellite located at an elevation of around 35000 kilometers directly over the equator, that orbits in the same direction the earth spins is Geostationary Satellite.
Geostationary Satellite are widely used in Communication Networks.
The first Indian Satellite erected completely to benefit the educational sector is EDUSAT.
EDUSAT was launched on 20th September 2004.
The first educational satellite of the world is EDUSAT.
The first Picosatellite of the country, in addition to the smallest satellite launched is STUDSAT.
The communication satellites launched by India are GSAT-6 & 6A, GSAT-11, GSAT-15, GSAT-16.
India's first unmanned lunar probe is Chandrayaan -1.
Chandrayaan -1 was launched on 22nd October 2008.
It runs for 312 days as contrasting to the planned two years but the mission attained 95% of its intended objectives.
Chandrayaan -1 was launched from Satish Dawan Space Centre, Sriharikotta.
The vehicle used for launching Chandrayaan is PSLV C- 11.
The vehicle was victoriously inserted into lunar orbit on 8th November 2008.
The presence of water on the moon was discovered by MIP (Moon Impact Probe).
The probe impacted near Shackleton Crater.
The project Director of Chandrayaan 1 is M. Annadurai.
The ISRO chairman at the time of launching Chandrayaan 1 is G. Madhavan Nair.
End of the mission is in 28th August 2009.
India has become the fifth country after USA, Russia, China, France to reach the lunar surface.
Chandrayaan-2 is the second lunar exploration operation of the ISRO after Chandrayaan-1.
Chandrayaan-2 was launched on its mission to the Moon on 22 July 2019.
Due to the failure of Chandrayaan-2, ISRO may re-attempt Chandrayaan-3 by 2021.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan)
Mars Orbiter was launched on 5th November 2013.
India's first inter planatary mission is Mangalyaan.
First Asian country to launch Mars Mission successfully is India.
Mangalyaan was launched from Satish Dawan Space Centre.
The vehicle used to launch Mangalyaan is PSLV C-25.
World's cheapest (low cost) Mars Mission is Mangalyaan.
ISRO chairman at the time of launching of Mangalyaan is Dr. K. Radhakrishnan.
The first nation to reach Mars Orbit on its first attempt is India.
The spacecraft successfully entered Martian Orbit on 24 September 2014.
VSSC chairman at the time of launching of Mangalyaan is S. Ramakrishnan.
Programme director of Mangalyaan is M. Annadurai.
Project Director of Mangalyaan is S. Arunan.
India became the fourth space agency after Soviet, NASA and European Space Agency to reach Mars.
Important Launch Vehicles
Launch Vehicles are used to transport and put satellite and spacecraft into space.
Important launch vehicles of ISRO are SLV, ASLV, PSLV, GSLV
SLV - Satellite Launch Vehicle
ASLV - Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLV - Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
GSLV - Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle
The launch vehicles of ISRO under development are GSLV MK III, AVTAR – RLV.
AVTAR - Aerobic Vehicle for Trans atmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace
RLV - Reusable Launch Vehicle
The first experimental satellite launch vehicle of India is SLV -3 (1980).
ISRO's first attempt to design and develop an operational vehicle that can be used to orbit application satellite is PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle)
Indians in Space
First Indian to travel in space is Rakesh Sharma (1984 April 2).
The Spacecraft that carried Rakesh Sharma to Space is Soyuz T-11.
The Orbital Station in which Rakesh Sharma spend 7 days is Salyut 7.
First Indian Women (Indian Origin) in Space is Kalpana Chawla (1997).
The space shuttle disaster in which Kalpana Chawla died on February 1, 2003 is Columbia.
The first meteorological satellite of India renamed as Kalpana -1 was Metsat.
Colombia memorial station is in the planet, Mars.
The birth place of Kalpana Chawla is Karnal (Haryana).
‘The whole universe is my native land’ was said by Kalpana Chawla.
The second Indian Origin woman in space is Sunitha Williams.
The longest single space flight by a woman is Sunitha Williams (195 days).
Most space walks by woman is Sunitha Williams (7 space walks for a total time of 50 hours and 40 minutes).
First Indian Space tourist is Santhosh George Kulangara.