Soils, Minerals and Forests are among natural resources in Kerala

soils, minerals, forests of kerala.JPG


There are ten soil groups in kerala. They are explained below.

Red soil: The red colour of soil is due to the presence of iron Oxide. It is mainly located in southern regions of Trivandrum.

Laterite soil: It is seen in districts of Kozhikode and Kannur.

Coastal alluvial soil : It is seen in the coastal regions along the west.

Riverine alluvial soil: It is seen in the coasts of rivers. The soil has moderate Organic Matter, Nitrogen and Potassium. It is mainly found in Kollam and Alappuzha districts.

Brown hydromorphic soil: It is found in river valleys. The main disadvantage of the soil is the drainage. The soil is rich in organic matter, Nitrogen and Pottasium. It is poor in lime.

Hydromorphic saline soil: It is common in the coastal zone of the districts Ernakulam, Kannur and Trichur. In the rainy season the fields are flooded resulting in losing the salt in soil. Huge amount of salts will sedimented during summer.

Acidic salitic soil (Kuttanad Alliuvium): It is found in the Kuttanad area that spreaded about 875 square km. The main disadvantage of the soil is salinity, flood and acidity. They can be grouped into three categories, the Kayal soils, the karappadam soils and the Kari soils.

Black soil: It is found in the region of Chittur in Palakkad district. The soil is low in organic matter and high in clay matter. It is medium in Phosphorous and Potassium content and low in Nitrogen.

Forest soil: It is formed by the weathering of crystalline rocks in the forest cover. The soil is high in organic carbon and also it is acidic. It is rich in Nitrogen and poor in Phosphorous.

Greyish Onattukara soil: It is the sandy soil found only in the Onattukara region. These soils are rare and available only in the Onattukara region including the places of Karunagapally (Kollam) and in the Karthikapally and Mavelikara taluks of Alappuzha.


Kerala has large deposits of heavy minerals. They are explained below.

Chavara deposit : World class deposits of mineral sands are seen in the coastal tracts between Neendakara and Kayamkulam. The Chavara barrier beach consists of 60% of heavy minerals. Heavy minerals and and China Clay accounts above 90% of entire production of minerals in Kerala.

China clay: The State has large deposits of China clay. It is mainly concentrated in Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Kasaragod districts.

White Clay: Thiruvananthapuram district have rich deposits of white clay. The deposits of graphite, silica and limestone are considerable in the State.

Lignite: Lignite deposit have been identified in Madai area in Kannur district, Nileswaram - Angakalari – Palayi - Chathamath area, Kadankottumala, near Cheruvathur, Kayyur - Klayikode area near Nileswaram in Kasargod district.

lllmenite, Monazite, and Silicon: It is found in abundance in the Chavara-Neendakara region of Kollam District.

Limestone: It is found in parts of Palakkad and Kannur districts and in Thannermukkom, Vaikorn, Vadanapilly and Kodungalloor.

Limeshell: The largest reserves of lime shell are known to occur in Vembanad Lake and ad-joining portions comprising parts of Alappuzha, Ernakulam and Kottayam Districts. The lime shell resources have been found in Kannur and Kasargod districts in North Kerala.

Gems: Deposits of chrysoberyl have been found in the eastern parts of Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts.

Graphite: Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts of the state have abundant deposits of graphite.

Iron ore : Iron ore deposit are common at several places in Kozhikode and Malappuram Districts.

Bauxite: Large deposit of bauxite are common in the places of Shooranadu, Adichanalloor in Kollam District and Mangalapuram,Chilambil, Sasthavattom and Attipra areas of Thiruvananthapuram district. Kumbala, Neeleswaram and Kanhangad are the places of deposit in North Kerala.

Mica: The geographical distribution of mica includes Punalur in Kollam district and Kayana in Kozhikkode districts of Kerala. But mining has not advanced so far.

Gold: Gold occurs in Kerala mainly in Wayanad and Nilambur regions. The gold mine found in the Attapady valley of Palakkad is a good sign.


Kerala Forest Department (KFD)

Kerala Forest Research Institute (KFRI)

Kerala State Council for Science, Technology and Environment (KSCSTE)

Industries related to Forestry

Mangrove Forest

Forest Area in Kerala districtwise

Important Forest Regions