Department of Ocean Development (DOD) came into existence in 1981.
National Institute of Oceanography is at Panaji (Goa).
The Oceanographic Research Institute is at Panaji, Goa.
National Institute of Ocean Technology is at Chennai.
Indian National Centre for Ocean and Information Services (INCOIS) is at Hyderabad.
Every country has the complete sovereignty over its territorial sea upto 12 nautical miles.
India is the first country in the world to successfully collect nodules from the ocean. Only six other nations have nodule mining capability. They are USA, former USSR, the U.K., Germany, France and Japan.
The expedition to Antarctica is organised every year by the National Centre for Antarctic & Ocean Research (NCAOR) which is situated at Goa.
The NCAOR and the DOD decide the members for the India's Antarctic expeditions.
The first Antarctic expedition was launched in December 1981.
The First Indian expedition to Antartica was led by Dr. S.Z. Quasim.
The Second Indian expedition to Antartica was led by V.K. Raina
Kanwal Vilku is the first Indian woman to stay 15 months in Antartica at the time of 19th Indian expedition.
The 25th expedition to Antarctica was in January 2006. It's leader was Dr. M. Sudhakar. Malayalee member of the team was Dr. N. Anil Kumar.
Thrishna is the fibreglass yacht that navigates around the world in 1985. It is the first expedition commenced by Indian sailors to go around Earth.
Centre for Marine Living Resources and Ecology is an oceanography institute located at Kochi.
First Indian Arctic Expedition led by Rasik Ravindra (was launched in August 2007).
India is a signatory of 1922 Salzburg Treaty. It permits India to carry out research in Arctic.
India is the 11th country to set up a research station in Arctic.
The second Arctic Expedition reached Himadri in June 2009. Himadri Station is the country’s first Arctic research station sited in Norway. It is erected at the International Arctic Research Base, named Ny-Alesund. Himadri was inaugurated on 1st July 2008.
The leader of the second Arctic expedition is A.A. Mohammad Hatha.
Airbus A319 Jet flew from Hobart (Australia) to Antarctica on January 11, 2008.
Sirohi Point: Giriraj Singh Sirohi was the first Indian to set foot on Antartica. He carried out research at the South Pole in Antartica in 1960 for around 100 days. To honour his contribution the US government named a place in Antartica after him as Sirohi Point in 1961.
The Ship Sagar Nidhi, nicknamed the 'Pearl of the Ocean', was acquired by the Ministry of Earth sciences on January 12, 2008 for underwater explorations to obtain oceanographic and hydrographic research including water, ice and core sampling of the seabud.
The flagship of India's fleet of Oceanographic study vessels is O.R.V. Sagar Kanya.
The Indian Navy on April 9, 2008 became the first Indian team to ski to the North Pole. It was also the first Indian team to ski to both the poles and the first organisation in the world to reach all the three poles (North pole, south pole and the top of the Everest).
First Indian to reach south pole is Colonel J.K. Bajaj (1989).
First Indian woman to ski to the south pole is Reena Kaushal Dharmshaktu (2009).
First Indian to reach the north pole is Sanjay Thapar (1996).
First Indian to skydive over the north pole is Sanjay Thapar.
First Indian to hoist an Indian flag at the North pole is Sanjay Thapar.
First Indian to reach both north pole and south pole is Ajeet Bajaj.
First Malayali to visit north and south pole is Bijoy Nandan.
Permanent Stations at Antartica
The first permanent station of India at Antarctica: Dakshin Gangotri.
Dakshin Gangotri was established in 1984. (In 1989 it was abandoned after it became buried in ice.)
India's second permanent station in Antarctica is Maitri.
Maitri was constructed in 1989 on the Schirmacher Oasis.
India's third permanent research station in Antartica is `Bharati'.
Bharati in the Larsemann Hills region is in the eastern part of Antartica.