Facts about Nuclear Energy in India

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The Father of Indian Atomic Research is Homi J. Bhabha and the Father of Indian Nuclear Bomb is Raja Ramanna. India's journey to atomic research started with the establishment of Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). AEC was formed on 3rd August 1948. The headquarters of AEC is at Mumbai. The First Chairman of AEC is Dr. Homi J. Bhabha.


It is divided into two as Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). AEC has three types of units.


For the implementation of atomic energy programmes, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was established. DAE was formed in 3rd August 1954. The headquarters of DAE is at Mumbai. It is directly under the Prime Minister of India.


To carry out regulatory and safety functions of atomic energy, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board is formed. It is established on November 15, 1983. The headquarters is at Mumbai. Its first Chairman is Prof. Arun K. De.


Bhablia Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was created as Atomic Energy Establishment on 3rd January 1954. After Homi J. Bhabha's death in 1966, the centre was renamed as BARC on 22nd January 1967. BARC is the research and development centre of Department of Atomic Energy. Its headquarters is at Trombay, Mumbai. The Motto of BARC is Atoms in the service of the Nation.


Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR)

The former name of IGCAR Reactor is Research Centre Reactor. Research Centre was established in 1971. Reactor Research centre was renamed as IGCAR in 1985. IGCAR is located at Kalpakkam.

RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology)

Originally called Centre for Advanced Technology. It was formed in February 19, 1984. It was renamed to Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology in December 2005. RRCAT is situated at lndore, Madya Pradesh.

VECC (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre)

It was established in 1977. It is located in Kolkata, West Bengal. Its main purpose is to perform research in basic and applied nuclear science.


Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCL)

NPCL created in September 1987. NPCL is responsible for constructing and operating India's commercial nuclear power plants. The headquarters is at Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL)

It is responsible for the mining of uranium ore in India. UCIL was founded in 1967 October 4. The headquarters of UCIL is at Singhbum (Jharkhand).

Electronics Corporation of India Ltd. (EGCIL)

It was setup on 11 April 1967. Its objective is to contribute in achieve self reliance in strategic electronics.


Nuclear Fuel Complex and Heavy Water Board

Nuclear Fuel Complex

NFC was established in 1971. It was established for the supply of nuclear fuel bundles and reactor core components. The Headquarters is at Hyderabad, India.

Heavy Water Board (HWB)

HWB is responsible for production of Heavy Water which is used as coolant and moderator in nuclear power and research reactant. HWB currently operates 7 heavy water plants in India. The first heavy water plant was setup at Nangal in 1962. Other Heavy water plants in India are at Baroda, Tuticorin (Tamil Nadu), Kota (Rajasthan), Thal (Maharashtra), Hazira, Thalchar, and Manuguru (Telangana).

Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Ltd. (Bhavani)

Bhavani is a public sector undertaking established in 2004. ( Chennai)

Homi Bhabha National Institute (HBNI)

HBNI is a Deemed University established in 2005 (Mumbai). The First Director of HBNI is Ravi Grover.

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR)

TIFR was established in 1945 June 1. TIFR is located at Mumbai. The First Director of TIFR is Homi Bhabha.


Nuclear Explosion in India

India's first underground nuclear explosion was carried out on May 18, 1974 in Pokhran in Rajasthan (Thar desert). Pokhran is in the district of Jaisalmar. The first nuclear explosion took place on the festival day is Budha Jayanthi. The code name of the first nuclear explosion of India is 'Buddha is Smiling'. The second and third nuclear explosions of India were carried out at Pokhran on May 11 and 13 in 1998. The code name of second and third nuclear explosion of India is 'Operation Shakti'.

The Prime Minister of India at the time of first nuclear explosion of India is Indira Gandhi. The Prime Minister of India at the time of second nuclear explosion of India is A.B. Vajpayee.

The Head of the entire nuclear bomb project of first nuclear explosion of India is Raja Ramanna. The chairman of Atomic Energy Commission of India at the time of first nuclear explosion in India is Homi Sethna. The former Indian President who played a very important role in second nuclear explosion of India is APJ Abdul Kalam. First Geothermal Power Plant in India is Balrampur (Chattisgarh).

Atomic Reactors


India's first atomic reactor is Apsara. Apsara went critical on August 4, 1956. It is a swimming pool type reactor. It was built with assistance from the United Kingdom. Asia's First research reactor is Apsara. Apsara Reactor was shut down in December 2010.


'Cirus' is a 40 MW reactor type. Cirus was went critical on July 10, 1960. The Second nuclear reactor to be built in India is Cirus. It was located in Trombay (in BARC). The Cirus reactor was permanently shut down on 31 December 2010. The reactor was shutdown by the Indo-US nuclear accord is Cirus.


India's largest nuclear research reactor is Dhruva. The name Dhruva was given by Giani Zail Singh (then the President of India). The India's fifth Research Reactor is Dhruva. The Dhruva went critical on 8th August 1985. It is a 100 mw high power nuclear research reactor.


India's first fast breeder neutron reactor is Kamini. Kamini is located at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. It went critical on October 29, 1996. The first reactor in the world designed specifically to use Uranium is 233 fuel is Kamini. It is also the World's only thorium based experimental reactor.


It is india's third research reactor. It reached critically on the January 1981. The reactor was decommissioned and dismanted in 1983.


Purnima reactor I, II, & III is a series of nuclear reactors. Purnima I obtained critically on 18 May 1972. It was decommissioned in 1973 and renovated to produce Purnima II. Purnima II reached critically on 10 May 1984. It was decommissioned in 1986 and renovated to produce Purnima III. Purnima III obtained critically on 9 November 1990. It was decommissioned in 1991.

Important Nuclear Disasters

Nuclear Liability Act 2010

The Act provides a civil liability for atomic harm and prompt compensation to the sufferers of a nuclear incident. This Act is also known as The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act. Loksabha passed the nuclear liability bill on 25th August 2010

Nuclear Power Reactors of India

India's Nuclear Power Reactors

Tarapur Atomic Power Station

First Atomic Power station in India is Tarapur. The Total capacity is 1400 MW. At present largest nuclear power station in India is Tarapur. Tarapur was commissioned on October 28, 1969. Tarapur Atomic Power station is located at Thane, Maharashtra.

Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant

It is India's first nuclear plant to generate 1,000 MW power. Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant was commissioned in 22 October 2013. The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is located in Tirunelveli District of Tamil Nadu. The foreign country that collaborates to build Kudankulam nuclear plant is Russia. Kudankulam Project was signed by Rajiv Gandhi & Mikhail Gorbachev (on 20th Nov. 1988). One unit is operational & one unit is under construction. The fuel used for the reactors at Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is Enriched Uranium (Uranium 235).

The local leader who protests against the construction of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant is S.P. Udayakumar. The anti nuclear power group founded by S.P. Udayakumar in Tamil Nadu is the People's Movement Against Nuclear Energy (PMANE).

Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant

It is located in Surat, Gujarat. It was commissioned on May 6, 1993. The Units operational are two (220 MW each) and 2 units are under construction.

Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant

It is located in Uttar Kannada district of Karnataka. It was commissioned on 16 November 2000. It has four units.

Madras Atomic Power Station

It is located in Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. It was commissioned on 24 January 1984. The two units are under operation and one unit under construction.

Narora Atomic Power Station

It is located in Uttar Pradesh. Two units are operational. Unit 1 was commissioned on January 1, 1991. Unit 2 was commissioned on July 1, 1992.

Gorakhpur Nuclear Power Plant

India's largest nuclear Power Plant is Gorakhpur Nuclear Power Plant (Under Construction). Gorakhpur nuclear power plant is located in the state, Haryana (Fatehabad district). The foundation stone of Gorakhpur nuclear power plant was laid on 13 January 2014 by Dr Manmohan Singh. The capacity of Gorakhpur nuclear power plant is 2800 Megawatt. It is also known as Gorakhpur Haryana Anu Vidyut Pariyojana (GHAVP). The GHAVP project will be completed by 2021.

Nuclear Agreements